Choosing a tripod can be an overwhelming experience, given how many different types and choices we are presented with. On one hand, a tripod is a very simple tool to keep our cameras steady when we use them in challenging light conditions. On the other hand, there are so many different variables that come into play when choosing a tripod: How tall should it be? How light should it be? How stable should it be? What kind of weight can it support? How much should I spend on a tripod? These are just some of the questions that might come up as you look into buying a new tripod.
Before getting into the intricate details about tripods, I would like to go over the advantages and disadvantages of tripods and why you might need one for your DSLR or mirrorless camera.
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Why Do You Need a Tripod?
So, what is the purpose of a tripod? You might need a tripod for some or all of the following reasons:
- To increase sharpness and depth of field in your images by keeping the camera still in low-light environments when using slow shutter speeds.
- To rest heavy camera gear such as long telephoto lenses on the tripod.
- To increase the quality of the images by keeping the camera ISO low.
- To allow more careful composition, while framing the shot exactly how you want it.
- To shoot HDR and panoramic shots that require exactly the same framing and precision.
- To photograph nighttime objects such as the Moon, planets, stars, etc. as well as painting with light or using available light for landscape and architectural photography.
- To do self-portraits with a camera timer.
- To shoot extreme close-ups/macro (flowers, insects, etc).
- To hold various objects such as flashes, reflectors, etc.
- To shoot at difficult or impossible (hand-held) angles.
- To shoot vibration-free videos or do smooth pans and tilts in video.
- To defend yourself :)
I personally use a tripod for one main reason – landscape photography. Shooting sunrises and sunsets can be quite challenging, especially when the light conditions are far from ideal. Thanks to image-stabilized lenses and now cameras with excellent built-in image stabilization, the use of a tripod for most types of photography is not necessary when shooting in daylight conditions.
However, some photographers still prefer to use a tripod, as it allows them to keep the camera ISO as low as possible, which not only keeps the amount of noise in images to a minimum but also provides the highest dynamic range the camera sensor can capture. In addition, a tripod can help in proper framing of a subject and allow to capture panoramic and HDR images.
Lastly, there are situations where one must use a tripod in order to slow down and blur action, such as when photographing streams and waterfalls. Therefore, if you are into landscape photography, a good tripod is a must-have tool in the field.
Occasionally, I might use a tripod for wildlife photography (specifically for bird photography), but not during long hikes, due to inconvenience and weight factors.
Tripod Components – What is a Tripod System?
A tripod system is generally comprised of the following parts:
- Legs – the obvious. Tripod legs are typically made of aluminum, basalt, steel or carbon fiber.
- Head – the part that holds a digital camera or a lens. There are many different types of heads, but the most popular types are ball-heads and pan-tilt heads.
- Centerpost/Center Column – a separate leg that runs through the middle, allowing to further raise the tripod head.
- Feet – good tripods allow changing tripod feet at the end of the legs for indoor and outdoor use.
The cheapest tripods have legs with an integrated non-replaceable head and feet and sometimes have a centerpost, while the top-of-the-line tripods have a modular tripod system that have replaceable feet and allow attaching a separate tripod head (the head is typically not included).
Disadvantages of Using a Tripod
Tripods are nice and can give you many options to get the highest quality image. However, there are also some disadvantages of using tripods, specifically:
- They are potentially heavy. Although there are lightweight carbon-fiber tripods out there, once you add a tripod head, the setup can become heavy.
- They are inconvenient. No matter how small and collapsible a tripod is, it still occupies space and is often inconvenient to carry around or travel with.
- They are difficult to use in crowded environments.
- They can be expensive. Good tripod systems can cost over $1,000.
- They can take time to set up, making you miss the best moment.
- You can easily damage your camera and lens if you do not know how to properly operate a tripod, or if the tripod system is cheap and unstable.
Factors to Consider When Choosing a Tripod
You started your tripod shopping spree and have no idea where to start. What factors do you need to consider when purchasing a tripod? As I have pointed out above, purchasing a tripod can be an overwhelming experience, given how many different choices we are presented with from small and compact, to large and heavy. Let’s go through each factor and identify your needs:
The first thing I would look at is how much weight a tripod can support. Many photographers make the mistake of buying a tripod that can only support a few pounds and is not made for heavy camera equipment. What ends up happening is obvious – at one point or another, the whole thing collapses, destroying the camera and the lens.
Always make sure that the tripod you want to buy can support at least 1.5 times more than the total weight of your camera and your heaviest lens. I say “at least” because I prefer to keep it at around 2x more. Do not forget that you will at times apply pressure on your camera and sometimes even rest your hands on the setup if you are shooting with long lenses, which adds to the weight. You might also add a flash or a battery grip to your camera in the future, or potentially shoot with something heavier.
A tripod should at least match your height so that you do not have to bend to look into the viewfinder. Once you put your camera on a tripod, the viewfinder should be at eye level. It is fine if it goes higher than your eye level because you can always adjust the legs to be shorter. However, if it is much below your eye level, you will find yourself bending all the time, which can be a tiring experience, especially when you are waiting for some kind of action and need to constantly look through the viewfinder.
If you are buying a tripod with an attached head, you want the tip of the head to be on your jaw level. If you are buying a modular tripod with a separate head, make sure that the legs end approximately on your shoulder level.
Another factor to consider is tripod height when it is folded for easier travel. Do you need it to fit in your carry-on luggage? Mine barely does diagonally, with feet removed, and I take it with me everywhere I go.
Tripod Weight and Construction
Weight is a significant factor when choosing a tripod. You do not want your tripod to be too heavy, because you will find yourself leaving it at home, rather than taking it with you on the road. The lightest tripods are made of carbon-fiber material, which is extremely durable, stable, and does not rust. While carbon-fiber is the best material for a tripod, it is unfortunately also expensive.
The next best construction material is aluminum, which is heavier than carbon fiber. Most cheaper tripods are made of aluminum today. You can also find tripods made of stainless steel, but those are generally used for video equipment and are too heavy for regular use.
In terms of total weight, try to keep the tripod legs without the head under 5 pounds. Generally, carbon fiber legs are between 3 and 4 pounds (but can be lighter or heavier depending on what they are made for), while aluminum legs can be between 5 and 6 pounds and heavier, depending on the size and how much weight they can support. Basalt lava legs are somewhere in-between both in terms of weight and cost.
Tripod legs generally come in two forms – tubular and non-tubular. All carbon-fiber legs come in tubular form and have a threaded twist-lock system to secure the legs, while aluminum, basalt, and steel tripods might come in different shapes with a flip-lock. Depending on the maximum height of the tripod, there might be between 3 and 5 sections on tripod legs. The more sections, the higher the tripod and generally a little less stable.
Some advanced tripods will allow you to replace tripod feet for different conditions and situations – they just unscrew on the bottom of the tripod legs. There are different types of tripod feet for indoors (rubber or plastic) and outdoor use (metal spikes). Unless you are planning to shoot in icy, rainy/slippery conditions, the standard rubber feet that come with your tripod should work just fine.
Some tripods come with a centerpost – a single leg in the middle of the tripod that allows you to increase or decrease the height of the camera by simply moving the centerpost in upward or downward direction. Although some photographers find it convenient and nice to have, I strongly advise against having a centerpost on a tripod.
A centerpost defeats the whole purpose of a tripod – it is essentially the same thing as having a monopod on top of a tripod. It might not be as pronounced if you are only shooting with a wide-angle lens, but once you set up a long telephoto lens, you will quickly understand that using a centerpost will cause too much vibration. If you still want to get a centerpost for whatever reason, make sure that it can fully decline to the same level as where the tripod legs meet. The centerpost should never wobble at its lowest level.
A tripod head is the most essential part of the tripod system. It is responsible for securely holding camera equipment and controlling camera movement. A modular tripod system does not come with a head and you have to buy it separately. When choosing a tripod head, always make sure that it can support at least the same amount of weight your tripod legs can.
There are generally three types of heads commonly available:
- Pan-Tilt Head – either with a single handle for horizontal movement or dual handles for both horizontal and vertical movement. This is the most common type of head that is typically built into cheaper tripods.
- Video Fluid Head – This is a version of the pan-tilt head but made specifically for video. Decent fluid heads actually have fluid in them and are reasonably expensive in order to execute panning and tilting for video, whereas cheap pan-tilt heads on budget tripods are unsuitable for video.
- Ball-Head – compared to pan-tilt heads, ball-heads only have one control that loosens or tightens the grip. They are very flexible and allow very smooth operation while keeping the camera/lens securely tightened.
- Geared Head – A geared head is similar to a ball head, except that it has a geared action that allows you adjust axes of movement separately. Because the movement is geared, the adjustments you can make are more precise than with a ball head. The geared action also eliminates the slight movement of the camera that can happen when tightening a traditional ball-head, which happens even with the expensive ones.
- Gimbal Head – a specialized head for long and heavy 300mm+ lenses. Compared to pan-tilt heads and ball-heads, gimbal heads perfectly balance the camera and heavy lens and are best suited for fast-action photography. They are extremely easy to use in any direction and do not require tightening the head every time the camera/lens moves.
I started out with a pan-tilt head and eventually switched over to a ball-head with a quick-release system (see next), due to flexibility and easiness of use.
Every modern camera comes with a thread on its bottom that allows you to attach it to a tripod or a monopod (heavy lenses also come with a similar thread on the tripod collar). This threaded system makes it extremely inconvenient to attach cameras and lenses on tripods because you have to either rotate the camera or the tripod to attach them together.
To make it easier and more convenient for photographers, manufacturers came up with a great solution – attaching a small removable plate on the camera or lens, which then can be tightly secured on the tripod head.
Cheaper tripods come with a simple plastic plate that can be attached to any camera or lens, while some of the more expensive tripod heads come with a more durable plate. The best quick-release system for still photography, however, is the Arca-Swiss Quick Release System. It has more or less become a standard among manufacturers and it has proven to be a very effective solution for quick and easy operation.
Compared to plastic plates, the Arca-Swiss Quick Release System is made of very strong aluminum and allows attaching the camera/lens on a tripod without the need to rotate anything. A quick-release plate can be left permanently on a camera or lens, which then easily slides into a quick-release clamp (pictured below). The locking mechanism is simple, yet super tight for vibration-free operation.
The beauty of this system is that some manufacturers like Really Right Stuff and Kirk Enterprises offer not only plates for almost any camera and lens but also replacement lens tripod collars, flash brackets, L-brackets, and other accessories for the Arca-Swiss Quick Release System. The only downside of the Arca-Swiss Quick Release System is that it is not cheap – you also have to purchase separate plates for each camera and lens.
For video fluid heads, a few different quick-release systems are available. All of them are similar to the to the Arca-Swiss system, but instead when the plate is loosened in the head, it cannot fall out of the head due to a safety mechanism.
This additional safety exists because when shooting video, you are constantly moving the camera by panning and tilting. If the quick-release knob loosened during this process such as through accidental bumping, your camera would fall to the ground. The safety prevents this and makes video shooting much less stressful.
A heavy tripod is not always a stable tripod. There are plenty of tripod systems out there that are heavy and durable, yet lack the much-needed stability when used in various weather conditions. When a tripod is fully set up, it has to withstand not only wind but also occasional bumps and knocks that might happen in the field. You always need to make sure that your camera and lens balance on a tripod rather than lean towards one direction, because you might end up damaging your equipment if the head is not fully tightened or if the front outweighs the back and everything falls on the ground.
Which Tripod Should you Buy?
Now that you are familiar with all the criteria for selecting the right tripod, you are probably wondering which tripod you should buy for your photography needs. Since I have frequently gone through the experience of shopping for tripods and have seen others do the same, let me tell you what many photographers end up doing.
They first look for the cheapest tripod available that will be good enough to hold their first camera, since they have no idea if they really need it or do not know how often they would be using it. This tripod costs between $75 and $150 for the legs and the head, which is a good price for a simple tool.
Next, they purchase a longer and heavier lens and add more weight to the setup. All of a sudden, they find that the cheap tripod is not good enough and they need something more durable and stable. After making the first mistake, they suddenly realize that they need to do more research and they spend countless hours reading about tripods on different websites and forums.
Despite all recommendations from the pros, they are not willing to invest on a top-of-the-line tripod with a good ball head, so they end up getting a popular tripod system for $300-500 with a separate head. Seems like a great investment and the tripod seems to be much better than the previous one.
After a year or two, they realize that their last purchase was not that good, because the tripod is too heavy and hard to use, especially for traveling. They realize that they should have listened to the pros in the beginning and bought a solid tripod system. Does this sound familiar? It certainly does for me, because I went through a similar experience and wasted too much effort and money.
Other photographers might have a different story, where they purchased an inexpensive tripod they like in the beginning and they are still happily using it today. All it says about them is that they are not using their tripods much and what they have is good enough for occasional use. Anybody who heavily relies on a tripod (especially landscape and architectural photographers) ends up buying two to three different tripods to eventually end up with the best.
It is hard justify the cost of a good system for someone who does not heavily use a tripod. If someone told me that I would eventually spend more than $500 on a tripod system when I just got into photography, I would have never believed them – that’s too much money to spend on a darn tripod! But it all turned out to be true, because I actually ended up spending a lot more than $500 overtime, and I wish I could go back in time and buy the right stuff from the very beginning.
If I recommend someone who has just bought their first DSLR or a mirrorless camera to get the best tripod system that costs between $800 and $1,200, I will almost certainly get a “you are crazy” look, no matter how well I explain my story. Therefore, here is what I would recommend:
- If you currently do not have a tripod and you want to buy one, get the cheapest aluminum tripod system with an integrated head for less than $150 total. Why do I recommend the cheapest tripod? Because you first need to understand how much you will be using it. Six months down the road you might end up doing other types of photography that do not require a tripod or you might find yourself on a path of becoming a good landscape or macro photographer. A cheap tripod will give you enough information to understand the real role of a tripod in your photography.
- If you already have a cheap tripod and you want to get something better, save yourself a lot of money and frustration and get the best carbon-fiber tripod with an Arca-swiss quick release system – skip the middle. Some people buy cheaper legs and heads and either find them too heavy or unstable. One common problem with other quick-release systems is the fact that cheaper plates do not grip well on cameras and start wiggling and rotating relative to the base, making it a nightmare for things like panoramic photography.
Best Tripods to Purchase
My tripod recommendations, based on the above, are divided into two categories: “low-budget” (under $150) and “top of the line” (over $500).
Low-budget Tripods (under $150)
Here are the best low-budget tripods under $150 that I recommend:
- Sunpak Ultra7040TM – $69.99. Very cheap, weighs 3.8 pounds (1.7 kg) and can support up to 12.3 pounds (5.6 kg) of total weight. This is very similar to the first tripod I bought for myself from a local camera store.
- Slik Pro 400 DX Tripod with 3-Way Pan/Tilt Head – $139.95. Although maximum height is too short at only 61″ (155 cm), it is reasonably lightweight at 5.6 pounds (2.5 kg) and can support up to 11 lbs (5 kg) of total weight. This would be a great tripod to take on long hikes.
Top-of-the-line Tripods (over $500)
Top-of-the-line tripod systems have separate legs and replaceable heads. Let’s start with the tripod legs. The best legs are made of carbon fiber and manufactured by such brands as Gitzo (top choice) and Really Right Stuff. I cannot really recommend a particular model, because you should choose one that fits your height and weight requirements. If you buy Gitzo, their best and the most stable line is the “Systematic” Carbon Fiber series without a center column. I personally have an older version of the Gitzo Systematic legs that I have been happily using for years and they have never failed me once.
There is another category of tripods called travel tripods. Travel tripods are similar to normal tripods, but they have some features such as more leg sections and thinner components to make them more compact. These more compact tripods are better for travel because they can fit inside smaller backpacks, whereas full-sized tripods that have thicker and fewer leg sections need to be carried separately.
There are some excellent travel tripods out there. Libor has reviewed the Peak Design Travel Tripod which goes for $599, and it’s a tripod I’ve also found to be pretty sturdy and quite compact. The Gitzo GT2545T Series 2 Traveler is also a great travel tripod, which is a bit more expensive at $789.
Should you get a travel tripod? That depends. If you’re mostly going to use your tripod from a car, in a studio, or on location where you don’t have to walk much, then you should get a normal, bigger tripod. That’s because no matter how good travel tripods are, they’ll never be as sturdy as a normal tripod.
Also, if you have very heavy gear, you’ll probably want a big, beefy tripod to go with it. However, if you have to carry your gear at all, then it’s much better to get a travel tripod. I’ve carried my older, normal tripod on short distances and it gets real heavy, real fast.
There is also a separate category of video tripods. They tend to be designed slightly differently than photo tripods. Although you can attach a video head to a normal tripod, a video tripod has features specifically for video.
For example, video tripods often have a different leg design that makes them more twist-resistant. With photography, being highly twist-resistant doesn’t matter much because you’re not going to be twisting your camera while it’s shooting photos.
However, when you’re shooting video, you’re likely going to be panning with a video head that has some resistance to make smooth pans, and if your tripod twists a little, it will ruin the pan. Thus, if you get serious about video, you should get serious about getting a video tripod such as the Benro A673TM or Benro CA673TM (carbon fiber version).
Keep in mind that with video tripods with bowl-head adapters, you will need a bowl-head (which is the best type of head for video).
Recommended Tripod Heads
In terms of tripod heads, if you are not shooting with very long lenses, you should definitely go for a ball-head for most types of photography, or a geared head if you need very precise adjustments. Here are the best ball-heads available in the market today:
- Arca-Swiss Z1 – $379.95. I have used this ball-head in the past and I really like it.
- Really Right Stuff BH-55 Pro – $415.00. Another great ball-head that is better in quality than the Arca-Swiss Z1 and Kirk BH1.
- FLM CB-58 – $474.00. Another superb ball-head with great features (see my FLM Ballhead review)
These are all relatively big ball-heads with huge load capacities, which might be overkill for your particular needs. I recommend exploring other smaller ball-heads by the above brands to see if there is a better fit. For example, I personally stay away from full-size ball-heads, because they are huge and heavy. My preference is to use smaller and lighter ball-heads that carry enough load to fit most of my needs, especially when traveling. My personal favorites are the RRS BH-30 and FLM CB-32 – these are the ball-heads I use most often for my work.
There are many other cheaper and more expensive brands out there that manufacture very solid ball-heads, but I’m not going to list through them all in this article.
Video heads are a bit more complicated. They are more expensive because the motion from one camera position to another has to be smooth in real time so that panning and tilting does not look rough on camera.
There are also two types of heads: flat-base heads that attach to typical photo tripods and bowl-heads that attach to video tripods. It is also possible to adapt a bowl-head to a photo tripod by using an adapter such as Gitzo’s SYSTEMATIC 75mm Bowl Head Adapter. Bowl heads allow rapid leveling that is difficult with a flat-base head.
One of the most popular video fluid heads is the Manfrotto 502AH. It is a good flat-base head to start out with if you want to try video, and will attach to a regular photo tripod. Unfortunately, it will not provide the smoothest pans.
Instead, like a good tripod, I recommend buying a good-quality bowl head from Cartoni or Sachtler. Although these heads start at around $600 and go up from there, you will get much smooth pans that will save you endless headaches when editing video. At some point, you may also want to get a dedicated video tripod, which has some features like locking legs that photo tripods do not, but that is a topic for another article.
A Good Tripod is a Life-Long Investment
Unlike cameras and even lenses that come and go, a good tripod is a life-long investment. If you buy a good tripod that is easy to disassemble and reassemble, chances are, you will be able to easily clean and even repair it yourself without having to send it anywhere. Well-known tripod manufacturers will provide long-term service and repair options in case any part of the tripod malfunctions or breaks. This way, you do not have to worry about replacing your tripod in the future…
Remember, with tripods, you often get what you pay for! Please let me know if you have any questions in the comments section below.