You may have heard photographers use the terms “exposure value” or “EV” when talking about the amount of light in a scene. But what does EV really mean in photography, and why does it matter to the photos you take? This article answers those questions and more.

Before I begin, I do want to mention that EV is a bit of a holdout in the modern world of photography, and not something you really need to calculate these days. I still think there’s a lot of valuable information you can take away from this article – and I wouldn’t have written it otherwise :) – but EV is more of a behind-the-scenes topic than the star of the show.

### What Is Exposure Value?

Exposure Value (EV) is simply a way to combine shutter speed and aperture to a single value. Although shutter speed an aperture both carry a lot of “side effects” like motion blur and depth of field, EV doesn’t take those into account. EV only relates to exposure.

Calculating the EV for a particular combination of settings is done through this formula:

N is your f-number, and *t* is your shutter speed.

Unsurprisingly, there are many combinations of camera settings which yield the same EV. For example, the following two sets of camera settings…

- f/2.8 and 1/100 second
- f/4 and 1/50 second

…yield the same EV. Indeed, by following the formula above, you will find that the exposure value calculates to roughly 9.6 EV in both cases.

### The EV Scale

The EV scales you’ll see most often tend to range from about -6 to +17. In theory, though, there’s no limit in either direction. For example, camera settings of f/22 and 1/4000 second yield an EV of almost 21 – though those settings are too dark for pretty much any real-world subjects (at least at ISO 100).

The “darker” your shutter speed and aperture (i.e. the less light you capture with them), the greater your EV. Hopefully, this makes some amount of sense; EV is often used to describe not just the camera settings you use, but also the brightness of the scene itself. A higher EV means you’re exposing for a brighter subject.

For a bright, midday scene, you’ll want a high EV like +15 or +16. In other words, you won’t want to capture too much light with your aperture/shutter speed combination.

For a dark subject – say, the Northern Lights – you’ll need a much lower value like -5 EV in order to avoid underexposure.

Here’s a table showing the EV of different shutter speeds and apertures:

f/1.0 | f/1.4 | f/2 | f/2.8 | f/4 | f/5.6 | f/8 | f/11 | f/16 | f/22 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

60 sec. | -6 EV | -5 EV | -4 EV | -3 EV | -2 EV | -1 EV | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV |

30 sec. | -5 EV | -4 EV | -3 EV | -2 EV | -1 EV | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV |

15 sec. | -4 EV | -3 EV | -2 EV | -1 EV | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV |

8 sec. | -3 EV | -2 EV | -1 EV | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV |

4 sec. | -2 EV | -1 EV | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV |

2 sec. | -1 EV | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV |

1 sec. | 0 EV | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV |

1/2 | 1 EV | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV |

1/4 | 2 EV | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV |

1/8 | 3 EV | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV |

1/15 | 4 EV | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV |

1/30 | 5 EV | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV |

1/60 | 6 EV | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV |

1/125 | 7 EV | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV |

1/250 | 8 EV | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV | 17 EV |

1/500 | 9 EV | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV | 17 EV | 18 EV |

1/1000 | 10 EV | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV | 17 EV | 18 EV | 19 EV |

1/2000 | 11 EV | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV | 17 EV | 18 EV | 19 EV | 20 EV |

1/4000 | 12 EV | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV | 17 EV | 18 EV | 19 EV | 20 EV | 21 EV |

1/8000 | 13 EV | 14 EV | 15 EV | 16 EV | 17 EV | 18 EV | 19 EV | 20 EV | 21 EV | 22 EV |

Hopefully there’s nothing too shocking in this chart. I just used the same formula from earlier to calculate EV’s for some of the most common aperture and shutter speed values. Still, I think it’s helpful to visualize like this, so you can see how changing shutter speed or aperture affects your exposure value.

I’d like to emphasize that each time you increase or decrease the EV by one value (or one “stop”), you are literally capturing half or twice as much light. An EV of 1, for example, captures quite a bit of light; an EV of 2 captures half that (which is still a lot); an EV of 3 captures half again. And so on.

The more interesting thing here is to figure out the relationship of these exposure values to real-world lighting conditions. For example – in what situations would an EV of 10 give you the proper exposure? Sure, you can get an EV of 10 using anything from 1/1000 second at f/1.0, all the way to 1/2 second at f/22 on the chart above. But when *should* you use one of those aperture/shutter speed combos?

That’s where a second chart comes in:

EV | Real-World Situation for Proper Exposure | ||
---|---|---|---|

^{1}This chart assumes ISO 100. Situations adapted from my own photos and from Wikipedia. | |||

-6 | Nighttime landscape under quarter moon | ||

-5 | Aurora borealis of moderate brightness | ||

-4 | Nighttime landscape under gibbous moon | ||

-3 | Nighttime landscape under full moon | ||

-2 | Nighttime snow or beach landscape under full moon | ||

-1 | End of blue hour | ||

0 | Late in blue hour | ||

1 | Middle of blue hour | ||

2 | Distant cityscape at night | ||

3 | Indoor scene lit only by dim window light | ||

4 | Floodlit monuments or fountains at night | ||

5 | Typical artificial indoor light | ||

6 | Bright indoor lighting | ||

7 | Fairs and theme parks at night | ||

8 | Bright window displays and advertisements at night | ||

9 | Nighttime sporting events under bright light | ||

10 | Moment after sunset on a clear day | ||

11 | Daylight on a foggy day | ||

12 | Moment before sunset on a clear day | ||

13 | Typical subject on a bright, cloudy day | ||

14 | Typical subject on a day with hazy sunlight | ||

15 | Full sunlight on a cloudless day, typical subject | ||

16 | Full sunlight on a cloudless day, bright subject (i.e. the beach) | ||

17 | Full sunlight on a cloudless day, highly reflective subject (i.e. snow) |

Obviously, there are more than just these 24 different lighting situations; I’ve only chosen one example per EV.

That’s why, rather than just taking the values above for granted, I recommend looking at your own images. Sort your photos by ISO 100 in software like Lightroom, and study various aperture/shutter speed combinations to see how the lighting conditions looked when you used those settings. You may find some interesting connections, like using the same settings to photograph (for example) the full moon with a telephoto as you did for a landscape on a sunny day.

I know I said that EV is a bit of a tangential subject to modern photography, but this is one case where it can lead you down a very useful path. By examining your own photos and figuring out which EV’s you used – and in what circumstances – you really will get a better understanding of how to expose your photos properly.

### What About ISO?

You’ll note that the chart above assumes you’re at ISO 100, and I also mentioned ISO 100 briefly a couple other places in this article. What’s so special about that ISO?

Nothing, really. That’s just how the chart is calibrated – it assumes you’re at ISO 100 in every case. But you certainly can make a similar chart for any other ISO. For example, ISO 800 is three stops brighter than ISO 100 (because the ISO scale goes 100, 200, 400, 800). If you’re at ISO 800 when the chart assumes you’re at ISO 100, that’s a recipe for overexposure. To compensate, you’d need to shift the “real-world situations” up three spots in the chart.

That said, ISO 100 is the standard, and that’s what you’re almost certain to see in any EV chart online or in print.

### Practical Applications of EV

One thing I always keep in mind when learning a new concept in photography is that it can be *useful* even when it’s not actually *worth using*.

I bring this up because EV definitely is not something most photographers think about in their everyday work today, nor a concept you need to understand in order to take proper exposures.

Even if in manual mode, most photographers choose their camera settings by looking at their camera meter’s recommendation, or by reviewing their histogram. Very few go through the whole process of looking at the scene, trying to estimate where it stands on an EV chart, and then finding corresponding aperture/shutter speed values for that EV. Aside from film photographers who left their meter (and now their phone) at home, there are better options than that.

Still, EV isn’t totally without practical applications – although most of them do fly somewhat under the radar. For example, you may have seen cameras advertised as metering or autofocusing down to “-4 EV” conditions (or -5 EV, -6 EV, etc.). In that case, EV is an important part of understanding a camera’s capabilities.

It’s also an area where a little knowledge can save you some money. Manufacturers like to fudge their EV numbers by using wide aperture lenses for their measurements. For example, a camera that can focus down to -6 EV conditions with an f/1.2 lens sounds very impressive – and it is – but a camera that can focus in -5 EV conditions with an f/2 lens actually is a bit better in low light (something that is obvious once you equalize the f-stops and shift the EV accordingly).

In the field, another application is simply to improve your “mental meter” and recognize when something may be wrong with your camera’s recommended exposure. If it’s a cloudy day, and your camera settings read something like f/8 at 1/4000 second, there’s a problem. Most likely, you accidentally bumped up your ISO too high.

The final real-world example I’ll give is when you’re shooting long exposures with something like a 10-stop ND filter. Going 10 EV’s up a chart like this will give you a set of potential aperture/shutter speed values to use – something that can be helpful if your meter isn’t working properly with the filter (especially as the light changes).

### Conclusion

As I mentioned in our article on the sunny 16 rule, there really is no “useless” technique in photography if it deepens your understanding of things. That applies to exposure value just as well.

Despite its (relative) outdatedness, EV is still deeply tied to concepts like shutter speed, aperture, ISO, and proper exposure. By the time you understand all the ins and outs of exposure values, you’ll have learned the other, more relevant stuff simply by association.

Plus, if nothing else, the two charts in this article can act as a sort of sanity check to make sure your exposures are reasonable. It’s the world’s simplest and least flexible meter, but even then it’s almost always going to be in the ballpark of the proper exposure.

And that sums up exposure value! Hopefully this article gave you something to think about even if you don’t plan to calculate EV’s in practice. If you have any questions or comments, feel free to let me know in the comments section below.

I did not understand what EV means, but now I managed, I know what EV means, and this is thanks to you Thanks so much my dear Spencer Cox for this information and the tips the value

I’m glad you found it useful, Jassim! Thanks for the feedback.

Thank you Spencer

Sure thing, Fabrice!

EV is summarized as an amount of exposure delivered over a period of time.

1/50 at f/4.0 is the same amount of exposure as 1/100 at f/2.8.

Ansel Adams used EV as the basis of his Zone System, which is also applicable to digital.

Film or digital sensors have an EV range where they record (or lose) detail.

Zone V is middle gray or 128-128-128 in a 0..256 digital range.

Zone II was the darkest tones where some texture is visible.

Zone VIII was the lightest value that retains texture.

Exposing at ISO 64, or the lowest ISO of your particular camera provides the greatest EV range.

Adams would place his critical shadow details at the lowest EV his working medium could resolve.

Digital works the same way.

Yes indeed! Thanks for adding this information, bgavin.

Ansel Adams was essentially doing the “ETTR” equivalent for film, and it’s pretty impressive that he worked out a way to do it so successfully. I’d like to write an article about the zone system at some point, even though (kind of like EV) it’s not something that directly affects most digital photographers.

I saw your comment below as well, and I’m glad you enjoyed the article!

I never understood Ansel Adams zone system as “ETTR”-equivalent for film. It is different but the goal is somewhat similar: Get most out of your images with the proper exposure. But that is about all of it.

I understand the AA zone system as a method to get the whole and (nowadays compared to digital sensors) limited dynamic range (of film and negatives) to the even more limited dynamic range of paper with your subject exposed perfectly. For Adams it is about texture details, recognizable between zones II and VIII.

Nevertheless, the zone system is hard to understand and even harder to work with. Darktable (the raw processor I use) offers a zone system module. I use it once in a while, especially to make sure, my prints will be printed with no white spots with no ink on it. I use Hahnemühle Finart Photo Rag paper for my prints a lot. With it and the proper printer white parts (#fff) are printed as well, so the AA-zone-system is no longer that important to me. Still, it is a great way to visualize the zones in your photo.

Jan, absolutely – implementing the zone system is totally different from ETTR, but I think they are conceptually related because of their similar image quality goals. It’s certainly easier to get those subtle textures (both highlights and shadows) now that today’s cameras have such good dynamic range, but it still takes a lot of care in tricky situations.

“Zone V is middle gray or 128-128-128 in a 0..256 digital range.”

mid grey[1]CIELAB 1976 lightness value L* = 50, which is:

(33/58)³ ≈ 18.42% reflectance;

−2.44 EV below 100% reflectance;

sRGB colour space (119,119,119);

Adobe RGB (1998) colour space (118,118,118)

NB: Zone V is 3.0 EV below Zone VIII, which is:

L* = 42;

12.5% reflectance;

sRGB colour space (99,99,99);

Adobe RGB (1998) colour space (99,99,99)

[1] en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/…_luminance

I cannot edit my above comment, so I will express many thanks to Spencer for his well thought out article.

And correct a typo in my post above.. where it should be 0..255.

Spencer, once again an excellent, well explained article on a potentially difficult to understand topic. Thank you.

Thank you, Tim, I appreciate it!

Thanks for the blast from the past. In bygone times my digital spotmeter read out directly in EV units. For about 20 years I calculated high contrast scenes in those terms. I sold that meter that shortly after going digital.

Also, as noted by Nasim, photographylife.com/what-…mpensation, exposure compensation is denominated in EV units rather than stops.

Nice article, and I really enjoyed it. EV is an old concept, unknown to most digital photographers, and forgotten by many older persons, as most modern cameras do not support it…

On my old Hasselblad lenses, where the shutter and the aperture rings are close to each other, you find an (orange colored) EV scale. My Seconic 758 light meter can directly read EV. Turn there aperture ring, to the chosen EV. Lock the shutter ring to the aperture ring, and now you can turn them both together, keeping the same exposure.

Way back in time, in the late ’50s, I had a Zeiss Contina II camera with a 35mm lens that had an EV setting that locked the aperture and shutter speed together so that I could adjust the camera without losing my metered information and accommodated for whatever ISO (then called ASA) film was used. It was an excellent approach that didn’t require a chart to haul around. The camera did not have a built-in light meter, however, so I always had to have a light meter hanging from my belt.

Spencer, your second chart gave me the insight I needed. It relates the brightness of the scene to EV in practical terms. Once you have the EV and fix the ISO, the formula gives the combinations of f stop and shutter speeds that yield a proper exposure.

I was thinking EV had to be a measure of illumination of the scene, including reflected light and light sources but never found a good explanation. Thank you.

Also, interesting comments from Charles and Bo Bjerre regarding light meters being in EV. Thanks!

Hello Spencer,

Interesting and informative article, but the formula you present under “What is Exposure Velue?” is not really clear. Could you give a practical example how to use this formula? Thanks in advance and best regards,

Ernst

Hello Ernst,

Forget Logarithms, the formula can be written as 2^EV = N^2/t. This means, N^2/t must be written as a power of 2, the exponent is the EV.

For example, take an aperture f/8 and t = 2 seconds, then N^2 is 8^2 = 64 and N^2/t = 64/2 = 32 = 2^5 (=2*2*2*2*2). Thus the EV is 5. (Look at the chart!)

If your scene sends more light to your lens (say twice as much), you can either reduce the exposure time to 1 s. Then N^2/1 = 8^2/1 = 64 = 2^6, the EV is 6.

Or you go “one stop” further up to 11, then the formula gives 11^2/2 = 121/2, which is almost the same as 64 and again EV is 6.

Rolf

“You may find some interesting connections, like using the same settings to photograph (for example) the full moon with a telephoto as you did for a landscape on a sunny day.”

When you think about it, the moon itself is like the beach on a sunny day

I had one of these Polaroids when I was a kid. Mine read EV only, there were no shutter or aperture settings

www.youtube.com/watch…PlUh1B6z9U

Using EV values is also useful when trying to balance studio lights, strobes and flashes. Or to ensure that a background is uniformly lit.