Although macro photography is very accessible – no exotic destinations or expensive gear required – it is often tricky to choose the best camera settings for macro work. If you want sharp, well-exposed photos, you’ll have to push your camera system to its limits. Luckily, this guide covers everything you need to know about camera settings for macro photography, including camera mode, aperture, flash, shutter speed, ISO, and focusing, plus two detailed checklists at the end.
I also just published a video explaining the same topic, so if you want to learn about these settings while watching bees take off in slow motion, check it out below:
Table of Contents
There are two camera modes which are useful for macro photography, depending on the type of photos you are planning to take:
- Aperture Priority – Useful when the source of light in your photo is the sun, or other ambient light, rather than a flash. However, keep in mind that it isn’t always realistic to do macro photography without a flash.
- Manual Mode – Necessary when using a flash for macro photography, or when shooting from a tripod under natural light (such as focus stacking several photos together).
I recommend avoiding the “Macro” or “Close-up” scene modes that some cameras have. Although these are better than the default Auto mode, they aren’t flexible enough to deal with tricky macro scenes, especially when you are using flash.
Also, do not use shutter priority mode for macro photography. You don’t want your aperture to change sporadically as you move in and out of shadows. It is important to control aperture for yourself.
The first setting you need to adjust is your aperture, also known as your f-stop. This is one of the most critical settings for macro photography, since it directly changes your depth of field.
Macro photography has very minimal depth of field – paper thin, and it gets worse as you focus closer and closer. With macro lenses at their closest focusing distance, you’d be lucky to get an entire ant head to appear in focus at once. Your best chance of capturing sharp photos is to pick your aperture very carefully.
So, what aperture should you use for macro photography?
It’s a tricky question. On one hand, the optimal aperture depends on your source of light. With a flash, you’ll have enough light to use very dark apertures like f/16 or even f/22, boosting your depth of field. If you’re not using a flash, you might need to resort to a brighter aperture like f/5.6 or f/8, even though it quickly diminishes your depth of field.
The optimal aperture also depends on other factors: the size of your camera sensor, the focusing distance to your subject, and even the brand of camera you use (because Canon calculates aperture differently than other brands in high-magnification macro photography). Here is a chart of our recommended aperture settings for different macro photography subjects:
|Low magnification close-ups (subject is several inches across: flower, dragonfly, frog, icicle, etc.)||High magnification macro photos (subject is about 1 inch/2 cm across: ant, dragonfly’s eyes, snowflake, etc.)|
|Micro Four Thirds Sensors||f/2 to f/8 – a wide range, since depth of field isn’t a big issue yet||f/8 to f/11|
|Canon APS-C||f/2.8 to f/10 – same reason as above||f/5 to f/7.1|
|Nikon/Other APS-C||f/2.8 to f/10 – same reason as above||f/10 to f/14|
|Canon Full Frame||f/2.8 to f/16 – same reason as above||f/8 to f/11|
|Nikon/Other Full Frame||f/2.8 to f/16 – same reason as above||f/16 to f/22|
Feel free to experiment and test these different ranges for yourself. They aren’t set in stone, although they are good starting points. Macro photography never has as much depth of field as you would think. I took the photo below at f/22 with an APS-C Nikon camera, and it still has a very thin depth of field:
As covered above, you won’t have enough depth of field for high magnification photography unless you use dark apertures like f/16. In turn, that means you’ll want to use a flash. A flash also cuts down on motion blur, whether from your camera or your subject. It’s one of the most important pieces of equipment for macro photography.
But what flash settings should you use? I strongly recommend using automatic (TTL) flash in combination with manual mode. That way, you pick your aperture for depth of field, but still enjoy the benefits of auto exposure to compensate for changing conditions.
In order to capture a bright enough photo, you might need to adjust flash exposure compensation quite a bit. I often use a flash exposure compensation of +2 to +3 stops for high magnification macro photography.
Flash can be very harsh for macro photography. You’ll want to use a flash diffuser to soften the light and avoid specular highlights on your subject. If you’d rather not buy one, you can make a flash diffuser pretty easily out of tape, cardboard, and a paper towel. See our complete article on macro photography lighting for more details.
Interestingly, when you use a flash with macro photography, the background of your photo may turn dark or even completely black. This is because the subject – being so close to your flash – receives many times more light than the background.
- With a flash: Your shutter speed setting is not especially important. Set it to 1/200 or 1/250 second (or whatever your fastest sync speed may be) purely to block out ambient light. It won’t affect the brightness of your flash, because your flash is over in far less than 1/250 second.
- Without a flash: It is critical that your shutter speed is fast enough to prevent blur from camera shake and subject motion. I recommend using 1/320 second or even faster if possible. You might get away with a longer shutter speed if you have image stabilization and your subject is large, but don’t push it too far. I can’t stress enough that blur is highly magnified for close-up photos. You certainly can get great macro pictures without a flash, but you need to watch this setting carefully.
- With a flash: ISO is deeply intertwined with flash for macro photography. Specifically, it’s common for flashes to struggle outputting enough light for macro photos (since your aperture is so narrow). It’s also a bad idea to keep your flash near full power most of the time; you’d rather keep it around 1/4 power so it recycles more quickly between photos. This is where ISO comes in. Set your flash manually to 1/4 power, pick an ISO that results in a good exposure of a leaf, and then set the flash back to Auto (TTL) mode. Now you know that it will hover around 1/4 power for a typical image. Your ISO will usually be in the range of 100 to 800 for macro photography with a flash.
- Without a flash: You’re dealing with a fast shutter speed to eliminate motion blur, and a dark aperture to capture enough depth of field. If you don’t have a flash, that only leaves one option for capturing bright enough pictures: ISO. It’s not unusual to use ISOs in the range of 800 to 3200 for macro photography. I recommend using Auto ISO here. Set your minimum shutter speed to 1/320 second and your ISO to 100. This will keep your shutter speed fast enough for sharp photos, while keeping your ISO at a reasonable value, without any mental energy expended worrying about sharpness and ISO for a given photo.
The good news is that all the settings so far will remain fairly constant from photo to photo. They are difficult to set, sure – once. But when you’ve set them properly, you’re pretty much done. I take almost all my high-magnification macro photos around f/16, 1/250 second, ISO 400, TTL flash. And for my low-magnification macro photos, I default to aperture-priority mode with Auto ISO 100, minimum shutter speed 1/320 second.
Unfortunately, focusing can be more complicated. You’re trying to maneuver a paper-thin depth of field to match your subject, sometimes when it’s moving quickly, all while keeping the composition you want. It’s a bit of an art form, and even the most skilled practitioners will come across subjects with meager of success rates.
My main recommendation is to use continuous autofocus for larger subjects at lower magnification. Once you get to high-magnification flash photography, autofocus simply won’t work well enough. Instead, set your camera lens to a given focusing distance, and then sway forward and backward until your subject looks sharp (not easy). Take the photo, and then take several more so you have the best chance of getting a sharp result!
We also have a detailed guide to focusing in macro photography that covers these techniques and more.
Recommended Camera Settings Checklist
That’s a lot of information to digest. Here is a checklist that you might find useful, based on the one in our complete guide to macro photography. Note that these camera settings are for high-magnification macro photography, with a flash:
- Buy a monopod or find a stick.
- Get a strong flash, and use a diffuser to soften the light. If you don’t have a diffuser, the best solution is often to make one yourself. Check out our comprehensive tutorial on macro photography lighting for more details.
- Put a macro lens on your camera and set it to manual focus at your intended magnification.
- Pick the correct exposure settings so that you capture the enough light. If the flash is your main source of light, and you’re shooting at 1:1 magnification, it is a good idea to use the fastest shutter speed that still syncs with your flash (typically 1/200 or 1/250 second). Use an aperture from f/16 to f/22.
- Set your flash power manually to 1/4, and manually set the ISO to whatever value exposes ordinary subjects properly, like a leaf. This may take some experimentation.
- Switch the flash to TTL (automatic) mode. However, even though it’s in automatic mode, you know it will tend to hover around 1/4 power, thanks to step 5.
- To get an accurate exposure, you will need to adjust your flash exposure compensation, potentially by as much as a few stops. It is not uncommon to have a flash compensation in macro photography of +2 or even +3, but it depends on the flash.
- At this point, the only “automatic” setting you’re using is auto flash, which will adjust itself depending upon the reflectiveness of your subject. All your other settings – aperture, shutter speed, and ISO – will stay constant. Don’t worry about changing them.
- Put your camera on a monopod or a stick, assuming that it doesn’t interfere with reaching your subject at the right height.
- Find a bug that lands long enough for you to photograph it – hopefully, one that is the size of a housefly or larger.
- Focus manually by swaying forward and backward until your subject looks sharp, then take the picture. Continue taking photos to maximize your chances of success.
- Watch out for dust spots in the editing stage, and you’re done.
Here is a similar checklist for lower magnification close-up photography without a flash:
- Set aperture-priority mode, and pick an aperture that gives you the desired depth of field. This could be almost anything, although I recommend an f-stop around f/2.8 to f/5.6 if you want an especially blurry background.
- Turn on Auto ISO, and set your Minimum Shutter Speed to 1/320 second. Set Max ISO to 3200. This way, your shutter speed won’t drop below 1/320 second unless you’re in a very dark environment, minimizing motion blur.
- However, if your subject is moving quickly (like a dragonfly in flight), set Minimum Shutter Speed to 1/1000 or 1/2000 second instead. In those cases, 1/320 will not be enough to freeze motion completely.
- Set ISO to your base value, usually 100 with most cameras. Chances are good that Auto ISO will raise your ISO higher than this, but you might as well set the default to be as low as possible.
- If your photos are turning out too bright or dark, just change exposure compensation.
- Use continuous autofocus (AF-C or Continuous Servo) with the focus point placed on your subject, and take the picture. Again, take multiple photos to improve your odds of getting one that is completely sharp.
Hopefully this article answers your questions about the best camera settings to use for macro photography. Although macro photography can be a complicated genre, it is also one of the most rewarding. You can take an amazing photo in your backyard on an otherwise ordinary day, or make the most of rain and fog to capture great close-ups.
It will take some practice to master these settings, and each sub-genre of macro photography has slightly different requirements, too. There is a lot of information to juggle and keep in mind at once. That said, a lot of these are set-it-and-forget-it settings that you will not usually need to change. And if you have any questions about the best settings for a particular type of macro photo, feel free to ask below.
I would like to know while deciding the f-stop for macro shots, the subject size should also be considered ? If yes then for very small or tiny subjects higher or lower f -stop should be used
The problem I am having is I can’t see the subject through the view finder. It’s very dark. I can see an outline and some movement but that’s about it. Any suggestions? Thanks
If you’re shooting with a fully manual lens (no electronic connections), that’s unfortunately going to be the case fairly often, especially on a DSLR. Those lenses don’t have electronic aperture control, so rather than showing you a bright viewfinder preview at a wide aperture, you’ll always see the viewfinder at the “taking aperture.”
If you’re not using a fully manual lens, you may have the depth of field preview enabled by accident, or “apply settings to live view,” or whatever it’s called on your particular camera.
Spencer, hi – in my dreams i would hv a camera of yr caliber! Im wondering, is there a macro setting on my phone camera? It seems like i saw one once on my phone, cant find it now…
Extremely useful article. Today’s l received my Sony 90mm micro OSS. Your article will definitely give a good kick start. Thanks
I have that same lens – awesome in all regards. IMO the sharpest lens in the Sony family.
For true macro photography (1:1) focus bracketing and focus stacking is necessary- some m4/3 cameras can stack in camera!
It’s a helpful technique, but focus stacking certainly isn’t necessary at 1:1. The second and third photos in this article are both at 1:1, and I always shoot handheld without focus stacking.
I would like to know whether Nikon D750 camera is a good choice for macro photography of flowers, insects , flowers & nature related subjects or not.
I have to disagree with some of the information provided in this article. The writer does not appear to be that knowledgeable in photography! For starters, in my world of which I have been a photographer for over 40 years, we call it Aperture or F-Stop. NOT f-number. Secondly, you make no mention at all of the lens’ “sweet spot” any good photographer would know this term. f/22 albeit you would think produce the best sharp in theory, it is not necessarily the sharpest point! on my Nikkor 105mm the sweet spot is around f/7.1 for close up work. I use lots of static light (not flash units) so that I can get a more natural shot. Flash IMO is not the best route in the macro world. You mention a diffuser which will help. I also set the ISO to as low as I can tolerate. Most of the time at 200. then with the camera on a tripod and a remote trigger I set the shutter to real slow (or until the exposure is good), then trigger. If you have moving objects then this will be difficult. In some cases where there are multi layers of DOF, I use focus stacking methods… more advanced photography. Having said that, I have used my 105mm with the f-stop set at f/20 and f/22 for some macro work in portraits. I do agree with you that you should be shooting in “manual” mode. You can check out some of my macros if you go on the Microsoft theme store for Windows display themes, and search for one of my Macro sets. “macro world of rocks” by David Sommers.
Thanks for adding these tips – however, it is presumptuous of you to think I am not knowledgeable in photography. The differences you mention seem largely due to differences in subject that we shoot; it would be equally presumptuous of me to say that your recommendations (i.e., constant lighting, no flash, f/7.1) are bad because they won’t let you shoot a moving dragonfly’s head outdoors at 1:1 magnification.
You’re obviously right that f-stop and aperture are the more common terms in casual use. That’s why I used the word “aperture” 23 times in this article and “f-number” only once! Still, I’ve changed the f-number reference to say f-stop, because I think you’re right that it’s less confusing in that context.
However, f-number is a well-defined and valid technical term: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-number … it is the reciprocal of f-stop.
When you refer to a lens’s sweet spot, I agree. Lenses are typically sharpest from f/4 to f/8, obviously depending on the lens. If you’re doing macro photography and have time to focus stack (i.e., you’re shooting from a tripod and the subject isn’t moving), those are the apertures I recommend.
However, if you are shooting single images, especially handheld, your depth of field is simply so shallow that a small aperture like f/16 or f/22 is extremely helpful. It’s worth dealing with some extra diffraction to get such an increase in depth of field.
Now, I will note one exception – if you shoot high magnification macro photographs with Canon cameras, it’s critical to remember that Canon gives you a readout of the lens’s actual rather than effective aperture. In other words, Canon does not take the bellows effect into consideration, whereas every other manufacturer does. So, you must multiply the f-number (yes, I’m using it correctly there as a technical term :) by the (magnification + 1). Therefore, if you are shooting 1:1 macro (1x) photos on a Canon camera at f/8, your effective aperture is f/16 (and every other brand would read f/16 under the same circumstances).
I don’t know if you’re a Canon shooter or not, but it’s worth making that distinction, and that your f/7.1 recommendation won’t be taken the same way by everyone.
As for flash vs constant lights, I think it depends on what subjects you shoot. I almost always shoot outdoors handheld of moving subjects like bugs, and constant lights simply aren’t an option. With enough effort, it’s possible to make a diffuser setup that gets you good, natural-looking light even with a flash. But you’re certainly right that it’s not easy. A studio setup, if your subject allows for it, does grant a lot more flexibility.
As an amateur photographer, this is the perfect article for me. I have tried my hands on macro photography and I find myself needing more in certain shots. Spencer’s article here meet my needs. Now, I know what to add to my skills to move on to the next level.
Great article. I thought I was going crazy and didn’t understand why all of my macro photos were out of focus. I actually thought something was wrong with the Canon 35mm F1.8 RF lens. So frustrating. I was advised by the camera store to shoot in Manual mode with my Canon EOS RG and set a minimum aperture of 5.6. Nothing worked. Now I know why. I am a beginning photographer and I’ve only owned this camera for 5 days. Just took a couple pics using your recommended settings and things look good. Hooray. Thanks again.
I have a short story giving me headaches.
I have been shooting my d7500 with a standard neewer flash for several month and have always been able to choose my exposure time freely in my macro shooting. (Exposure manual, flash manual 1/4-1/16).
Of course under 1/500s exposure time my pictures were a bit dark on the bottom but still usable with a little cropping.
Here is one proof: www.flickr.com/photo…en-public/
Since a few days this does not work anymore and after a lot of reading also in your articles I found out, that this behavior seems so be normal (sync max. 1/250s). Maybe I didn’t connect the flash correctly before or there was a malfunction – as you might be able to look up in the meta data: the “old” pictures had “flash not fired” in the data.
I wish back the malfunction so bad because I hate motion blur at daylight…
Maybe you or Nasim have experienced anything like that before or have any other hint to trick my flash again. I really enjoyed to stretch my exposure time deliberately to the limits of my shutters physics.
I would be glad to get an answer as this could be a generally useful thing for all your readers.
Greetings from a big fan from Germany.
this is an old post, but I will answer this anyway. it sounds like you have your shutter speed set too fast for the flash unit! this will cause a dark line at the bottom of your images because the shutter is closing too fast. try it at 1/125th.
That’s really informative post. I appreciate your skills. Thanks for sharing.